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A Box of ChocolatesPosted Wednesday, June 3, 2009, at 10:54 PM
Life is like a box of chocolates -- it's full of temptation and eventually becomes empty.
The cacao tree, also known as "Theobroma cacao" to those who prefer scientific names, is native to the tropical, equatorial slopes of the Andes in South America. Theobroma is Greek for "food of the Gods." The ancient Aztecs worshipped the cacao tree and used the beans as currency.
Their main god, Quetzalcoatl, was the guardian of the cacao tree, considered the source of strength and wealth. The Aztecs crushed the beans into a paste, added spices, and drank it. Cacao seeds (beans) are the source of cocoa, cocoa butter and chocolate.
Early explorers brought the cacao bean back to Europe in the 1500s. With the invention of the moulding process in the 1800s, cacao beans were crushed into a fine powder, heated, and poured into moulds, forming shapes as it cooled. Thus the first chocolate candy bar came into being.
All modern commercial chocolate products contain substantial amounts of sugar, which may partially explain why chocolate can be so addictive.
According to research at New York University, there is a genetic reason some people crave sugary foods. Researchers identified a gene that was different between groups that craved sweets and those who didn't. An ability by prehistoric humans to identify nutritional foods, such as fruits, while avoiding bitter plant material, which could be toxic, may have led to a genetic trait present today through human evolution.
Chocolate, like other sweet foods, stimulates the release of endorphins, natural body hormones that generate feelings of pleasure. A craving for chocolate could be a craving for pleasure.
From a chemical point of view, chocolate is the world's most perfect food. There are over 300 chemicals in chocolate, many of which may also promote craving.
For example, chocolate contains magnesium and iron, thus would satisfy anyone with a shortage of these minerals, such as pregnant women.
Chocolate contains a small amount of caffeine, a stimulant of the central nervous system.
Another stimulant present is theobromine, which relaxes the muscles in the linings of the lung. This compound is safe for human beings but metabolizes more slowly in dogs and other domestic animals, and could even kill them.
Many studies show that some chocolate ingredients affect the brain. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transport electronic signals between nerve cells in the brain, causing changes in emotions and sensations.
Chocolate contains tryptophan, which creates a neurotransmitter called serotonin. High levels of serotonin can produce feelings of ecstasy. Coincidentally, the designer drug called Ecstasy also works by increasing serotonin levels in the brain.
Another chemical named phenylethylamine works as an amphetamine by stimulating the brain's pleasure centers, generating feelings of excitement, attraction and apprehension.
Anandamide is another neurotransmitter in chocolate that acts on the same brain structure as THC, the active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana). They also discovered other similarities between chocolate and marijuana, but can't remember what they were.
However, the amount of tryptophan, phenylethylamine and anadamine in chocolate is so small, one would have to consume vast quantities to produce an euphoric state similar to street drugs.
According to neuroscientist Daniele Piomelli, chocolate works "indirectly" to produce its high. It contains chemicals known to slow down the breakdown of certain compounds, therefore prolonging the action of the natural stimulation in the brain.
Dark chocolate contains flavonoids, including procyanidins, epicatechins and catechins. These compounds are antioxidents, which lower oxidation levels in LDL (bad) cholesterol and increase levels in HDL (good) cholesterol. They also reduce blood clotting, increase blood vessel flexibility and improve blood flow.
A study conducted at Harvard University suggests those who eat chocolate three times a month will live almost a year longer than those who don't.
Chocolate is terrific stuff. It tastes great, gives you an emotional lift and promotes a natural high.
But don't tell the government about it or they'll take that away from us too.
Quote for the Day -- "Life is like a box of chocolates -- you never know what you're gonna get." Forrest Gump
Bret Burquest is an award-winning columnist and author of four novels. He lives in the Ozark Mountains with a dog named Buddy Lee and where life is like a box of chocolates. His blogs appear on several websites, including www.myspace.com/bret1111
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Bret Burquest is a former award-winning columnist for The News (2001-2007) and author of four novels. He has lived in Minneapolis, Los Angeles, Miami, Atlanta, Kansas City, Memphis and the middle of the Arizona desert. After a life of blood, sweat and tears in big cities, he has finally found peace in northern Arkansas where he grows tomatoes, watches sunsets and occasionally shares the Secrets of the Universe (and beyond) with the rest of the world.