Adams' case first went to Butler County on a change of venue, after Adams was charged in April with two felony counts of distributing and using methamphetamine and cocaine while he served as sheriff.
Carter County Circuit Court Judge David Paul Evans has recused himself from the case. Judge Michael Martin Pritchett been assigned.
A probable cause statement said Adams snorted meth in front of an informant at Adams' rural Ellsinore cabin several times throughout 2010 and 2011.
Adams has been free on bond since June, and also faces federal weapons charges -- three counts of possession of stolen firearms and one count each of sale of a stolen firearm and being an unlawful user of controlled substances in possession of firearms.
Adams resigned in April from the position he held about two years.
Adams' former deputy, Steffanie Kearbey, 23, Ellsinore, also was arrested and charged with selling a gun taken from the sheriff's department evidence locker and stealing a duffel bag of coins from a home.
Kearbey's local charges were dropped, although she was charged in federal court in August with three counts of possession of stolen firearms and one count of being an unlawful user of a controlled substance in possession of firearms.
A trial date has not been set for the federal cases.
Adams is represented by attorney David Mann of Cape Girardeau. State assistant attorneys general David Mann and Kevin Zoellner represent the state.